While growth in demand for food, feed, fuel and fibres presents significant opportunities for agriculture, government policies must address challenges such as increasing productivity growth, enhancing environmental performance and adaptation to climate change, and improving resilience of farm households to market shocks brought on by weather and other unforeseen circumstances. Policy evaluation provides needed evidence for governments to ensure that their agri-food policies address these challenges well. Efficient policies clearly separate targeted measures that provide income support to farm households in need, from measures that support increased farm productivity, sustainability, resilience and overall profitability.
Countries have substantially altered their agricultural trade and domestic support policies over the past two decades. In some countries, support provided to farmers has become more decoupled from production — meaning that many farmers no longer receive payments for producing a specific commodity — and instead has begun to target environmental outcomes. But in some developed countries, support remains high and linked to production, while some emerging economies have also significantly increased policy interventions that distort production decisions.
In both cases, support could have been better targeted atpublic services that benefit producers, consumers and society overall.
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The subsequent partnership for the annual report builds on these studies to follow agricultural policy developments. Countries also provide important peer review of both policy data and analyses in the report. The OECD uses a standardised methodology to create this set of agricultural support indicators that allow for comparison of agricultural support between countries, and over time. This methodology is continuously updated and refined to maintain and improve its relevance in a changing policy environment. The OECD is also a founding member and partner in the International Organisations Consortium for Measuring the Policy Environment for Agriculture , which is working to develop a harmonised and consolidated database of well-documented agricultural support indicators for an even larger set of countries.
Agricultural policy packages need to be both coherent and efficient to enable the sector to develop its full potential and achieve key public policy objectives.
The sector is facing a number of challenges related to meeting future demands for food, fuel, fibre and eco-services in a more sustainable manner in the context of a changing climate. For this reason, an increase in tied aid means an increase in the number of social sector and other such projects for which tied aid is not inappropriate.
After two years of negotiations, the Participants in July finalized a new agreement on official financing for aircraft, with Brazil participating as a full partner in the negotiations, even though it is not a member of the OECD Participants. It also levels the playing field for U. By requiring this financing to reflect a shared assessment of market risk, the ASU will allow aircraft sales campaigns to focus purchase decisions on price and quality, where U. By eliminating or sharply reducing subsidies, the ASU encourages more use of market financing.
The ASU covers all types of civil aircraft from jumbo jets to small planes and helicopters. In , the Participants commenced a review to update the Nuclear Sector Understanding. The rules for nuclear power plant financing have not been updated since they were first agreed upon in They have seen little use over this period, either because they are considered too onerous or because of the past unpopularity of nuclear power. However, the recent and growing interest in nuclear power as a cheaper alternative to fossil fuels and one that does not produce greenhouse gases has been the impetus for the OECD to consider moderating the financing terms.
The OECD's current fee system for export credits sets the minimum fee levels to cover country risk for both sovereign and private borrowers. OECD members are free to charge whatever they want above this minimum to cover the buyer risk portion of a transaction for private sector borrowers. However, the nature of government financing has changed over the last decade, such that OECD members now sell their goods predominantly to private sector entities in foreign countries rather than to foreign governments.
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Because of this, the OECD launched a new initiative in that would establish a fee system to account for the commercial risk posed by private sector buyers. The Committee's discussions and analytical work help build international consensus on key emerging policy challenges with respect to international investment and on ways to promote sound investment policy and high standards of investment protection. The Committee also seeks to promote voluntary adherence by multinational enterprises to sound business practices.
In view of recent developments among members and key non-members regarding maintaining national security or protecting other important national interests in relation to foreign investment, the OECD Investment Committee continued work in on surveying practices in this area and evaluating their implications for sustaining and promoting an open investment policy among OECD members and nonmembers.
The roundtables focused on changes to legislative and regulatory practices at the juncture of investment policy and national security, threats to advances in investment liberalization, such as emerging protectionist pressures, and possible steps on international cooperation designed to address the issues. The OECD has finished Phase One of the work, in which members and key non-members took stock of the state of investment policy and national security practices, discussed issues arising from the stocktaking portion of the work and is now looking to when the Secretariat will release a final report on the Freedom of Investment project.
In the context of the project, the OECD has begun a discussion of the emerging issue of sovereign wealth funds SWFs in the global economy. The focus of the Committee's work is possible policy implications of SWF investment and sovereign investment generally and appropriate policies to address any concerns consistent with the imperative of maintaining open investment regimes. In addition to this report, the OECD Investment Committee will institutionalize regularly scheduled "peer monitoring" of the investment policies of its members and certain key non-members such as China, Russia, and India to continue to press countries to maintain open investment regimes.
In , the OECD continued its investment policy dialogue with non-members. The Middle East-North Africa Initiative MENA , which aims to mobilize private investment for the benefit of economic development in Middle Eastern countries, continued to hold ministerial forums designed to consolidate advances from previous meetings and begin a new phase of cooperation on investment and governance policies.
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During this time, the MENA initiative, which will extend until , began a second phase focused on a peer-learning process, the establishment of regional knowledge networks for policy development, public governance, capacity building, and the establishment of benchmarks for reform targets. Developed within the past three years, the PFI is a comprehensive diagnostic tool - covering 10 broad policy areas ranging from investment to trade, competition and corporate governance - designed for use in attracting and retaining foreign and domestic investment.
Finally, the Investment Committee continued to play an active role in in promoting corporate social responsibility through its oversight of the voluntary OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. The Committee also continues to serve as a forum for exchanges of experience on the Guidelines among national contact points NCPs as a source of clarification with respect to the Guidelines.
It further serves as a source of guidance in addressing the role of NCPs in promoting the Guidelines and in assisting firms in the resolution of issues that arise between them and others regarding their activities in relation to the Guidelines. Steel The United States supported efforts by the OECD Secretariat to review policies related to trade in inputs to steelmaking, including government restrictions on exports of raw materials.
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The United States has supported this work on the grounds that targeted regulatory reforms e. Main areas of work on regulatory policy have included cutting red tape, policy principles, regulatory performance, regulatory tools, country reports, and outreach to non-members.
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The Trade Committee's work on regulatory reform has two aspects: country reviews and product standards. In conducting country reviews, the Committee evaluates regulatory reform efforts in light of six principles of market openness: transparency and openness of decision-making; non-discrimination; avoidance of unnecessary trade restrictions; use of internationally harmonized measures, where available and appropriate; recognition of the equivalence of other countries' procedures for conformity assessment, where appropriate; and application of competition principles.
It examines the mutually reinforcing relationship between trade, investment, and competition policies and promotes the substantial gains for developing countries in higher trade flows and income per capita through market and regulatory reform. In , the Trade Committee carried out in-depth member country analyses, focused on identifying regulatory processes, tools, and policies, adopted in order to support market openness and improve trade and investment opportunities.
The report, "Brazil - Strengthening Governance for Growth," advocated the following: improved coordination between ministries, agencies, regulatory institutions and levels of government in the energy, telecommunications, and transport sectors; putting in place a system to assess the economic and social impact of new laws, with formal consultation processes; strengthening the accountability of regulatory agencies towards the public; and streamlining the appeals processes to reduce delays and increase certainty for investors.
The Convention and the related Revised Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions require parties to criminalize the bribery of foreign public officials in executive, legislative, and judicial branches; impose dissuasive penalties on those who offer, promise, or pay bribes; end the practice of some OECD member countries of allowing tax deductibility of foreign bribes; and implement adequate accounting procedures to make it harder to hide illegal payments.
Countries with limited natural resources, slow production expansion and high population growth will see rising net imports. Increasing import dependence is projected in particular for the Middle East and North Africa, where a scarcity of arable land and water constrains agricultural production. Skip to main content.
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Feed the Future This project is part of the U. Government's global hunger and food security initiative. Subscribe [X] Loading. Search Search Log In Post. Close Save changes. Event Date:. Jul 10, Event Links:.
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Information A strong evidence base is crucial for addressing current and future agriculture policy challenges. Filed Under: Agricultural Productivity. Climate and Natural Resources.